Fenobarbital is a sedative and anticonvulsant that belongs to the class of barbiturates and is known by the trade name Fenabbott. The medication acts as an enzyme inducer and increases the activity of the monooxygenase enzyme system. The active substance has a soporific effect and inhibits the activity of motor zones of the cortex and subcortex of the brain. Increases the CNS content of endogenous inhibitory mediator GABA, and reduces the excitatory effect of amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) on the CNS.
Indications for use of Fenabbott
Fenabbott 100 mg is indicated in the following cases:
- As a general sedative, especially for epilepsy and for conditions requiring prolonged sedation
- In the treatment of tonic-clonic seizures
- In the treatment of focal cortical seizures
- In detoxification of chronic barbiturism
- Illnesses and conditions when sedatives must also be taken during the day (e.g., oligophrenia, encephalopathy with signs of agitation, impulsivity)
- When discontinuing medications that do not contain Fenobarbital, to which the body is already accustomed, and in the period of agitation when alcohol is prohibited
- In the case of getting rid of drug addiction
- Parkinson's disease
Prevention of fetal jaundice, which forms in maternal hyperbilirubin anemia due to Crigler-Najjar type II syndrome.
Abrupt discontinuation of therapy in patients with epilepsy may cause epileptic status.
Because suicidal thoughts and behaviors have been reported during treatment with the drug, patients should be monitored for timely detection of symptoms.
Fenabbott tablets can cause different types of side effects, although they do not occur in all patients. It depends on each person's different sensitivity to the drug.
Urticaria, angioedema, skin rash, vulgar vesicles, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Nausea and sometimes vomiting
May cause toxic hepatitis
Lungs and respiratory tract disease
May cause apnea, respiratory depression, laryngospasm, and coughing
Hypotension, shock, vasculitis, and thrombophlebitis
Changes in lipid levels, hypocalcemia (decreased blood calcium concentration) and acute intermittent porphyria.
Diseases of the blood and lymphatic system
Thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets in the bloodstream), leads to clotting disorders, leukopenia (decreased number of leukocytes in the blood), and anemia (decreased amount of hemoglobin in the blood).
Other side effects include miosis (constriction of the pupil), mydriasis (dilation of the pupils), nystagmus, optical neuropathy, and genetic mutations.
Dosage of Fenabbott 100 mg
When administered orally as an anticonvulsant, the usual dose of Fenobarbital for adults is 100-300 mg per day. When used as a sedative, the drug dose is 50-100 mg per day.
The recommended dose of Phenobarbital for children is 20-100 mg and depends on age and body weight. The medication is long-acting barbiturate. A dose of 6 to 10 grams can be fatal.
If a patient has taken too large a dose of Fenabbott tablets, the following side effects may occur, such as headache; nausea; vomiting; darkening of the eyes; confusion; a state close to a coma. The comatose state is accompanied by irregular bradypnea, tracheobronchial obstruction, and arterial hypotension.
In case of intoxication, gastric lavage should be performed immediately, if the patient's condition allows it. Excretion of already absorbed Phenobarbital can be carried out by forced diuresis or by alkalizing the urine. In severe cases, hemodialysis may be prescribed. Treatment is symptomatic, there is no antidote.
Administration of Fenabbott tablets is contraindicated in the following cases:
Cases of hypersensitivity to Fenabbott
Patients with porphyria
Patients with severe hepatic or renal impairment
Patients with respiratory illnesses
Patients with severe heart disease
Patients with acute alcohol intoxication
Together with analgesics and sedatives
During pregnancy and breastfeeding
Patients who take other drugs containing Phenobarbital and Primidone (an antiepileptic drug).
Fenabbott may be addictive. Great caution should be exercised when prescribing the drug to patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency, elderly patients, or patients with alcoholism.