Amitriptyline is a drug that belongs to the pharmacological group of tricyclic antidepressants. Amitriptyline 50 mg and Amitriptyline 50 mg are used in major depressive illnesses, especially where a sedative effect is required, as well as in the treatment of clinical depression, involutionary melancholia and other psychoses in the elderly.
The drug should not be used in pregnant women. Use with great caution in elderly people.
Also with caution prescribe to patients with cardiovascular disease, thyroid disease, glaucoma, epilepsy and prostate hypertrophy, as Amitriptyline (Elavil) may aggravate the diseases.
Amitriptyline for pain
Amitriptyline is used in addition to other pain medications. The drug is approved for such indications as migraine prevention, treatment of neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and nocturnal enuresis.
The analgesic effect of Amitriptyline medication is related to its ability to increase norepinephrine and serotonin activity in the CNS, and acts independently of the antidepressant effect. The drug reduces the perception of pain by activating the descending system of serotonergic and noradrenergic inhibition.
Amitriptyline for migraine
Amitriptyline 25 mg is one of the most effective migraine medications. The drug not only affects the migraine pain syndrome, but also reduces some accompanying symptoms. The high effectiveness of Amitriptyline has been proven. Its use reduced not only the frequency and severity of attacks, but also the severity of dizziness.
Overdose of Amitriptyline
Symptoms of overdose: drowsiness or agitation and hallucinations are observed. Anticholinergic symptoms are manifested by mydriasis, tachycardia, urinary retention, dry mucous membranes and suppression of intestinal motility. Seizures, fever, and sudden development of central nervous system depression are possible. Decrease of consciousness progresses to coma with suppression of respiratory function.
Treatment: hospitalization in the intensive care unit. Treatment is symptomatic. Close monitoring of the condition is obligatory. Assess state of consciousness, the character of pulse, BP and respiratory function; at short intervals determine electrolytes and blood gases. Provide airway intubation if necessary. Treatment with mechanical ventilation is recommended to prevent possible respiratory arrest.
Children are particularly susceptible to cardiotoxicity and seizures. In adults, doses over 500 mg may cause moderate to severe intoxication, and doses of about 1000 mg may be fatal.
Amitriptyline and alcohol
Alcohol after taking Amitriptyline pills increases the risk of severe autonomic disorders in the form of severe blood pressure fluctuations; heart rhythm disorders; insufficient or increased blood clotting.
Adverse effects on the central nervous system include:
- behavioral disorders;
- state of euphoria;
- decreased reflexes;
- slow movements;
- decreased visual acuity.
Ethanol causes poisoning of the body. Headaches, dizziness, nausea, weakness, and apathy occur. If you combine it with certain drugs, then intoxication increases several times.
In severe intoxication with alcohol and Amitriptyline, seek immediate emergency medical care.
Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain
Amitriptyline relieves neuropathic pain because of its unique ability to inhibit presynaptic reuptake of the biogenic amines serotonin and noradrenaline as well as other mechanisms such as blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and ion channels, which play an important role in the analgesic effect.
How long does Amitriptyline stay in the body?
The half-life of the drug is 10 to 28 hours. It takes about five half-lives for the drug to be completely eliminated from the body. As a result, Amitriptyline will remain in the body for about 2-6 days after the last dose.
Amitriptyline for anxiety and insomnia
Amitriptyline medication restores the balance of chemicals in the central nervous system, thereby relieving pain, relieving muscle tension and improving sleep. The drug helps with anxiety and depression caused by pain. Amitriptyline pills are best taken in the evening or before bedtime. This is because Amitriptyline can make you sleepy.
Amitriptyline for headaches
The drug increases the amount of the chemical serotonin in the brain, thereby improving your mood. Amitriptyline also affects the nerves that receive pain signals, so the pain goes away. Therefore, the drug is effective for headaches and even migraines.
How long does Amitriptyline work?
The drug acts as a result of the accumulation of the chemical serotonin, so it takes time until Amitriptyline manifests its therapeutic effect. The result can be noticed after 1 to 2 weeks, but it takes 4 to 6 weeks for the full effect.
Side effects of Amitriptyline
Amitriptyline pills can cause side effects similar to those experienced with other tricyclic antidepressants:
- Immune system: allergic reactions.
- Blood and lymphatic system: bone marrow depression, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia.
- Metabolism: decreased appetite.
- Psychiatric disorders: state of confusion, decreased libido, anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, delirium (in elderly patients), hallucinations (in schizophrenic patients), suicidal thoughts or behavior.
- Nervous system: drowsiness, tremor, dizziness, headaches, attention disorders, dysgeusia, paresthesia, ataxia, seizures.
- Organs of vision: accommodation disorders, mydriasis, increased intraocular pressure.
- Hearing and vestibular system: tinnitus.
- Cardiovascular system: palpitations, tachycardia, atrioventricular blocks.
- Gastrointestinal tract: dry mouth, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, tongue swelling, increased salivary glands, paralytic ileus.
- Liver and biliary tract: jaundice.
- Urinary tract: urinary retention.
- Reproductive system: erectile dysfunction, gynecomastia.
Some side effects (headache, tremors, impaired concentration, constipation, and decreased libido), may also be symptoms of depression and usually subside as the depressed state improves after therapy.
Amitriptyline (Elavil) is not prescribed in cases:
- In hypersensitivity to this drug
- Acute alcohol intoxication
- Acute intoxication with sleeping pills, analgesic and psychoactive drugs
- Closed-angle glaucoma
- Severe disturbances of AV and intraventricular conduction (Bundle Branch Block, AV block II stage)
- Pregnancy and lactation
- Children under 6 years of age
Amitriptyline should be used with caution in patients with alcoholism, bronchial asthma, schizophrenia, and epilepsy.
Can I gain weight during treatment with Amitriptyline?
Amitriptyline can change the feeling of satiety. Many people feel hungry when taking the drug, while others feel less hungry. Thus, your weight may change if you first start taking this medication.
If you have weight problems while taking Amitriptyline (weight gain or weight loss), talk to your doctor or pharmacist.